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Already more than once happened before, that scientists were artifacts showing that, that many ancient civilizations possessed technologies, that modern humans became available only recently. E.g, One of the mummies of Ancient Egypt has demonstrated a high level of contemporary medicine, and strictly speaking, surgery ...

mumiaUsermontu - mummy of an unknown man

W 1971 in Egypt, American archaeologists discovered the closed sarcophagus, who delivered to California. Scientists found him lying in a well-preserved mummy of state. The research have shown, that she counts herself over 2600 years, and that the tomb was originally another tenant - Egyptian named Usermontu. Only after many years, for unknown reasons, this tomb was made quite another mummy. But was she who became famous under the name just at that. Analysis showed mummification, that the "new" Usermontu was a man with red hair, belonging to a high social class.

The mummy of the pin in the leg

after testing, scientists find donated to the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum in San Jose, California, where the sarcophagus with a mummy stopped more than twenty years. In August 1995 roku dr Wilfred Griggs, with a team of researchers from Brigham Young University, DNA tests conducted six mummies from the museum in San Jose, including mummies Usermontu. Scientists were surprised tight, when x-rays showed, that the left knee, one of the mummies is a metal pin with a length 23 cm. Dr. Griggs thought, that probably quite recently someone tried to repair the mummy.

Antiquity, the present day?

As stated by a representative of the university, on the basis of only the X-ray could not be established, for what period comes a metallic object in his knee mummy. Intrigued, Dr. Griggs returned to the museum in the evening, to look at him closer. He assumed, the pin did not come from the time of the mummy, but it would be interesting to determine, how it was introduced in the leg, and, possibly, When this operation has been made. After half an hour of careful examination concluded, the pin was much older, than suspected.

"At this point, if the ceiling collapsed on my head, I had to question everything, which we have established. I knew, that I have to come back here, to uncover the mystery, which is before us is revealed. "

The discovery of the mystery

In day 8 February 1996 , Dr. Griggs returned to the museum in San Jose with specialists to determine, whether it was indeed the first attempt of the ancient knee surgery, ever discovered. To determine the age of the events, researchers performed a small surgery: They drilled in the leg above the knee mummy small hole, through which they could take samples of bone and metal to analyze and see the same pin with the help microcams.

A group of scientists discovered traces of the old organic rubber, similar to the modern glue to the bone, as well as traces of the old fabric fibers and fat, which, thanks to the rubber was still firmly secured in place. Sam pin truss made of pure iron. Complementary research has shown, that medical treatment was carried out at a high level in Antiquity, about 2600 years ago.

The scholars were impressed by the fact, the pin has been designed according to the same principles of biomechanical, which are currently used, and the bone fixation.

The representatives of the University Young's Brigham'a from Provo, Utah established, the iron stick has a sharp, hooked end for easy entry into the femur - exactly the same shape used today. The other end, located in the tibia, It is equipped with three "teeth", to prevent changing the position of the pin in the bone.

Before, or after death?

All tired one question on this extraordinary discovery: the ancient surgeons perform the operation for life Usermontu, or already on his death?

For this purpose, had carried out a detailed examination of the body, refer to the ancient Egyptian process of mummification of corpses, and then draw any conclusions.

mummy-pin-surgeryTurned out, the bolt struck in the leg Usermontu in the period between his death and burial. The ancient Egyptians believed in a physical resurrection after death, which was to take place, when the soul goes to the afterlife. That's why, the behavior of the complete body in good condition was of paramount importance. If the deceased had any injuries, For example, gaps limb, These deficiencies were repaired by means of implants inserted after the death. It is known prosthesis finger, with over 3000 years. The exhibit is located in the Cairo museum.

The case of iron orthopedic pin is the first example of a highly technologically advanced operations using the metal element, made in ancient times. Hard to believe, that people, who invented and using this kind of orthopedic pins performed this operation on dead man. They could more easily attach the leg believing, that after the resurrection they simply anew to mend. So you can see here both strong religious motivation, and clear the wealth of the deceased, whose family could afford to absorb significant, undoubtedly, the cost of treatment.

History shows us, as highly developed were in fact ancient society. Characteristic of our contemporary culture, pride and sense of superiority does not allow us often to see, that people of other cultures, living in other times, also they were able to think and create amazing things. (SK)

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